A REVIEW OF THE REPRODUCTION BIOTECHNOLOGY FOR FISH FROM THE GENUS LEUCISCUS
Dariusz Kucharczyk, Katarzyna Targońska, Daniel Żarski, Roman Kujawa, Andrzej Mamcarz
Department of Lake and River Fisheries, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland
ABSTRACT. This review presents the results of papers published from 1990 to 2008 on the reproductive biotechnology of rheophilic cyprinid fish of the genus Leuciscus: ide, Leuciscus idus (L.), dace, Leuciscus leuciscus (L.), and chub, Leuciscus cephalus (L.). The issues studied included obtaining reproductors both from the wild and through aquaculture. Particular attention was paid to issues linked with the insufficient quality of spawners, which stemmed most frequently from their inappropriate handling. The effects of stimulating rheophilic cyprinid fish with various hormonal preparations was analyzed. Initially, carp pituitary homogenate (CPH) was used, and for a long period this was the only preparation in use. Later, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was used alone or in combination with CPH. It was confirmed that hCG is not suitable for the reproduction of rheophilic cyprinid fish. In the late 1990s, a gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue (GnRH) was introduced. Initially, Ovopel was used, which is a mammalian analogue of GnRH (D-Ala6 Pro9Net-mGnRH) with a dopamine receptor antagonist (metoclopramide). In recent years, studies have begun on the use of Ovaprim, a salmon analogue of GnRH (D-Arg6 Pro9Net-sGnRH) with a dopamine receptor antagonist (domperidone), and on GnRHa without a dopamine receptor antagonist. It has been confirmed that hormonal stimulation combined with stimulation through the manipulation of environmental conditions is essential for the reproduction of rheophilic cyprinid fish species of the genus Leuciscus under controlled conditions. The effects of reproduction under controlled conditions differ significantly among the species analyzed. The lowest percentage of ovulating females and spermiating males was noted in chub. Genome manipulation performed on the studied species is also described, including gynogenesis and androgenesis. The latter, in combination with semen cryopreservation, creates possibilities for restoring threatened populations and species.
Key words: IDE, DACE, CHUB, CONTROLLED REPRODUCTION, GAMETES, GENOME MANIPULATION
Dariusz Kucharczyk, University of Warmia and Mazury, Department of Lake and River Fisheries, Oczapowskiego 5, 10-957 Olsztyn, Poland, Tel./Fax: +48 895234215, +48 895233969; e-mail: email@example.com