Katarzyna Pałczyńska-Guguła, Halyna Tkachenko, Natalia Kurhaluk, Ewa Górska
ABSTRACT. Sea trout (Salmo trutta morpha trutta L.) is considered one of the most valuable species of fish fauna of the river Słupia in terms of natural, economic and angling values. Aquatic organisms in their living environment are influenced by a variety of stressful factors. They may modify physiological processes depending on the potency and duration of action and, in extreme cases, reduce the chances of survival. In ecotoxicological studies are developed concepts evaluating the effects of various components of environmental stress and use of biomarkers. They vary proportionally with the exposure degree of pollutants on animals in their natural environment. The main aim of our study was analysis of ecophysiological response in the muscle tissue of juvenile sea trout in river Słupia and its drainage basin areas (Glaźna, Skotawa, Kamienna, Kwacza). Physiological condition of organisms are based on the oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxidation and oxidative modification of proteins), the antioxidant defenses (activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and catalase), elements content (the concentration of trace elements – manganese, copper, zinc, iron, and macronutrients – calcium, magnesium) in the muscle tissue of juvenile sea trout. Muscle tissues from each fish were collected for the chemical and biochemical assays. Juvenile specimens of sea trout from river Glaźna were characterized by high levels of calcium and high superoxide dismutase activity in muscle tissue compared to those in fish from other rivers. High catalase activity and high levels of derivatives of oxidative modification of proteins and lipids were reported among the fishes inhabiting the river Skotawa. The results suggest about oxidative stress intensity due to pollution of fish habitat. Lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation increase the catalase activity in the muscle tissue of smolts indicating about the activation of compensatory defenses mechanisms of the fish. Smolts from the river Kamienna were characterized by a high level of bio-elements (Mn, Cu, Zn, Fe) and the high activity of antioxidant defenses (catalase and glutathione peroxidase). A characteristic feature of juvenile sea trout inhabiting in the river Kwacza was a high level of Ca and Mg. These fish are also characterized by high levels of ketone derivatives of oxidative modified proteins, indicating a certain degree of pollution of the river. As shown in the reports of the Regional Inspectorate for Environmental Protection, the cause of contamination of rivers are industrial wastewater, agricultural pollution, runoff from urban and sewage from our homes. The quality of water in the river Słupia is result of pollution flowing from settlements and agricultural areas, tourist management of lakes and pollution from the left bank tributaries of the river. The lower flow of the river Słupia adopt pollution carried by the river Skotawa and Kwacza as well as agricultural pollution. Analysis of antioxidant enzymes activity and oxidative stress markers, as well as elements levels in the muscle tissue of juvenile sea trout will allow to assess of health condition depending on the habitats of fish. The study, in addition to factual knowledge, will provide the protective actions resulting in a further increase in the amount of this species of fish in Słupia including the degree of pollution of their environments.
Keywords: sea trout, Słupia basin, oxidative stress, bioaccumulation of elements
Przyjęto po recenzji 24.03.2015 r.