Krzysztof Jagiełło, Konrad Ocalewicz
ABSTRACT. Increasing aquaculture productivity is achieved by applying various techniques associated with feeding, reproduction, genetics, and improved fish health. Thanks to genomic engineering methods such as gynogenesis, androgenesis, and polyploidization, it has been possible, with some fish species, to develop production technologies for single-sex and infertile triploid female stocks. Both gynogenesis and androgenesis permit producing homozygous individuals and clonal lines of fish. Mitotic gynogenesis is achieved by activating eggs with sperm that have been deactivated with UV radiation, and then duplicating the maternal genetic material. Androgenic individuals are obtained by inseminating radiated eggs with sperm in which the DNA is intact, and then later parental chromosome diploidization duplication. Clonal fish lines can be obtained through subsequent rounds of androgenesis and gynogenesis using gametes from homozygous gynogenic or androgenic individuals. Cross breeding individuals from two different homozygous or clonal lines can produce progeny with rapid growth, higher body weights, and increased immunity to disease (heterosis effect). Homozygous fish are used in gene mapping and sequencing studies. Homozygous and clonal fish stocks are used in selection and rearing programs, in quantitative gene studies, and in studies on the impact of the environment on phenotype. Clonal fish lines permit estimating genotype–environment interaction and the phenotype plasticity of the characters of individuals. Androgenic individuals can be used in studies of mitochondrial variability and mtDNA.
Keywords: androgenesis, chromosomes, genome, gynogenesis, homozygous individuals, clonal lines
Przyjęto po recenzji 31.03.2015 r.